L'eau et les eaux
Organisation sociale, droits et valeurs
Jeudi 14 février 2019
Les thématiques et les problématiques de l'Eau, dans leurs différentes dimensions, comprennent entre autres: la mousson comme fait social total dans «l'Asie des moussons», la gestion sociale de l'eau (social water management) dans ses dimensions tant agricoles (irrigation) qu'urbaines (ressources en eau potable et traitement des eaux usées), l'histoire et l'économie politique de l'aménagement des grands bassins fluviaux depuis les systèmes traditionnels de canaux et de réservoirs pour l'irrigation des rizières jusqu'à la création de gigantesques barrages, les droits riverains (riparian rights), et le partage géopolitique des eaux fluviales, et globalement, la sécurité des ressources en eau. Certes les experts ne parlent pas de violence, concept philosophique à connotations éthiques et religieuses, mais ils parlent de sécurité. Il nous revient d'analyser les réductions, les distorsions, les appropriations par lesquelles la problématique de la violence appliquée à l'appropriation des ressources en eau donne naissance à une problématique de la «sécurité régionale». L'accès à l'eau et la pollution des eaux en milieu urbain est une question cruciale, mais que nous ouvrirons ultérieurement. Nous limitons cette année notre présentation à l'écologie de l'eau et aux savoirs de l'eau en milieu rural, et, de façon plus restrictive encore faute de temps, à un volet particulier de ce dossier: la gestion politique des droits d'accès aux ressources naturelles pour l'agriculture.
Dans l'analyse anthropologique des valeurs de l'eau, nous devons confronter les représentations traditionnelles aux idées contemporaines et aux questions politiques et juridiques que soulèvent la collecte, la conservation et l'utilisation de l'eau dans le contexte écologique et économique d'aujourd'hui. L'ambiguïté est inévitable entre une ressource que l'on peut s'approprier et un bien commun que l'on doit respecter.
L'ambiguïté des Commons
La règle de non-appropriation des ressources naturelles
Séminaire du 1er mars 2011
Les juristes distinguent la chose de personne (res nullius) et la chose commune (res communis). Les choses de type res nullius sont sans valeur et sans maître: le poisson et le gibier sauvage, les eaux de pluie et eaux souterraines, les fleurs et les champignons des bois, qui peuvent être captés par n'importe quel sujet de droit. Elles sont appropriables. L'indifférence du droit à l'égard de ces biens tient à leur abondance: on ne craint pas d'en manquer. Les choses de type res communis prennent naissance avec le risque de la pénurie: l'air, la mer, l'eau courante, le vent, la lumière sont des ressources naturelles essentielles; elles ne sont pas appropriables. Les choses communes donnent lieu à des conflits d'usage.
Ramaswamy R. Iyer, Water. Perspectives, Issues, Concerns, New Delhi: Sage, 2003, Chapter 7, pp. 77-81
In writing or speaking about water, it is easy to get muddled because of its multiple aspects or dimensions. Water is perceived by different people (or by the same people in different contexts) in different ways: as a commodity, as commons, as a basic right and as a sacred resource or divinity. Often when we are under the strong influence of one perception, other perceptions seem quite wrong. For instance, those who regard water as 'commons' or a 'common pool resource' tend to deny vehemently that it is a commodity. Contrariwise, those who see water as a commodity are often blind to the other dimensions of water. The truth is that we can say many things about water and be right. Commodity, commons, basic right, divinity: all these are partial perceptions; all are valid; we need all of them to understand the roles that water plays in our lives. We need to be aware that what is true of one of the multiple dimensions or aspects of water may not hold for another. Unfortunately, at any given time, one or more partial perceptions tend to dominate our thinking, and thus leads us into drawing wrong conclusions and formulating wrong prescriptions.
Pour le public éclairé en Inde aujourd'hui, ce sont donc quatre dimensions d'un statut juridique de l'eau et des règles d'accès à la ressource en eau qui en découlent: une marchandise (commodity), une chose commune (commons), un droit fondamental (basic right), une ressource sacrée (divinity).
1 / Water as Commodity [Marchandise]
To many of us the notion of water as a commodity seems unacceptable. However, let us consider the following cases:
a. the use of water for irrigation in commercial agriculture;
b. the use of water for cooling or steam generation or industrial processes;
c. luxury uses by the affluent (in saunas, swimming pools, gardening and so on).
Would a description of water as a commodity in such contexts be wholly inappropriate? Again a hotel may need large quantities of water for keeping operational /78/ its kitchens, bathrooms, toilets, laundry, swimming pools and other recreational facilities, and may enter into contracts with supplying agencies for bulk water supplies on a regular basis; or a farmer may buy the irrigation water that he or she needs from another farmer in the neighbourhood: in these transactions is water not a commodity? Questions of equity, social justice and resource conservation do arise in such cases, and we may wish to limit or regulate or discourage the use, or ensure that proper prices are charged; but it seems hardly possible to rule out such uses or the related transactions altogether, and to the extent that they take place, water is indeed a commodity in these contexts.
However, no one is quite comfortable with the crude description of water as a commodity, so a more sophisticated formulation has been found: water is now generally described as 'an economic and social good'… Let us note that 'good' here does not necessary have a connotation of moral approval; it is more akin to 'goods', i.e., objects of merchandise. That is not necessarily a wrong perception in some contexts, as illustrated above. However, it is indeed a wrong perception in other contexts such as water as life-support or as a common pool resource of a village community.
2 / Water as Commons [Chose commune]
The view of water as 'commons' or as a 'common pool resource' [res communis] is strongly advocated and is attractive, but two points need to be noted. The first is that the notion of 'commons' (as distinguished from private ownership) is of easy application in the context of a small lake or pond or tank or other waterbody on common land; we can think of it as owned by the community. With larger waterbodies, and with streams and rivers, difficulties begin to arise in the form of 'upstream versus downstream' issues, riparian rights [les droits riverains] and so on.
However, we can still argue that the water source belongs to the community as a whole, or to 'civil society', and that the conflicts that arise can be resolved within that overall framework (though that benign formulation tends to breakdown when rivers cross national boundaries or even political divisions within a country). The notion of commons also runs into difficulties in the context of urban water supply systems (where an agency, whether public or private, supplies water to citizens by a network of pipelines from its /78/ storages), or in that of the supply of irrigation water through canals from large reservoirs, whether state-owned or privately owned.
The notion of commons has a value even in such contexts; what we are trying to do is to deny the private or state ownership of water and to vest that ownership in 'civil society'. But does any person, body or institution—even civil society—own water? Bypassing that question for the present, we can talk about 'community management of common pool resources'.
[La notion de gestion permet de contourner la question de la propriété.]
Incidentally, we must be wary of unduly enlarging the geographical scope of the ideas of 'commons' and 'community'. If we widen the notion of 'community' to cover the State as a whole, or go one step further and encompass the entire nation under that rubric—and we might wish to do so for certain legitimate purposes—it may be difficult to resist further expansion to the globe as a whole. There are serious implications to accepting a description of water as a 'global commons' [patrimoine de l'humanité], a natural resource [ressource naturelle] that belongs to all humanity. The dangers are obvious enough.(*) When we use expressions such as 'commons' or 'community management' we usually have a local context in mind (one village or a cluster of villages constituting a watershed) and it would be better to confine ourselves to that context.
The second point is that the community is a collectivity. The idea of community management of common pool resources does not by itself imply any individual rights to water. The rights of individuals will be merely those that are agreed upon by the community (or conferred by civil society institutions) instead of being granted by the state or arising from contracts. [Cf. la distinction anthropologique entre statut et contrat.] The idea of individuals having rights to water is yet another perception.
(*) Le danger est qu'une nation dominante, ou une multinationale en position de monopole, se déclare d'autorité dépositaire et gardienne de ce patrimoine de l'humanité.
3 / Water as a Basic Right [Droit fondamental]
Water sustains life. In that aspect, it is a basic need and therefore a basic right. This does not automatically follow from a description of water as 'commons'. In the traditional societies of the past, people might not have needed the language of rights; customs and conventions would have been adequate. Indeed, some of those would have had the force of law: hence the expression 'customary law'. However, in the legalistic societies of today 'formal law' has become more important, and that is why it has become necessary to talk about the 'right to water'. We are talking about water as life-support, i.e., drinking water. As mentioned above, this is /80/ a basic or fundamental right, but is it also a 'human right'? … Water as a basic right is a useful perception, but it has the potential of being asserted not only against the state (it is in that context that it comes to be formulated) but also against the community or civil society. [Un droit individuel, un droit de la personne.] We need both perceptions (water as commons and water as a basic right) and must learn to harmonize them.
4 / Water as a Sacred Resource
The fact that water supports life, and that it is also a part of the natural environment, sustaining it and in turn being sustained by it, leads to its being regarded as 'sacred'. (This is not a reference to the ritual uses of water, though these reinforce the sacred aspect.)
D'une ressource sacrée à un bien commun
Réservoir du Parthasarathy Temple de Triplicane à Chennai (Inde du sud), exemple réussi de gestion communautaire.
The Hindu, October 26, 2005
Tessitures > Ganapati: Places > Monsoon
Francis Zimmermann, Monsoons in traditional culture, in J. Fein and P. Stephens, Eds., Monsoons, New York, Wiley Interscience, 1987: 51–76.
Francis Zimmermann, Mousson — Anthropologie, Encyclopaedia universalis, Paris, 1990, Volume 15: 857–861.
Robert Markley, Monsoon Cultures: Climate and Acculturation in Alexander Hamilton's A New Account of the East Indies, New Literary History 38, 2007: 527–550.
Tessitures > Ganapati: Anthropologists > Mosse (David)
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David Mosse, Colonial and Contemporary Ideologies of 'Community Management': The Case of Tank Irrigation Development in South India, Modern Asian Studies, Vol.33, No.2 (May, 1999), pp.303–338.
David Mosse, The Rule of Water. Statecraft, Ecology, and Collective Action in South India, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2003.
Tessitures > Ganapati: Places > Dams and tanks
J. Stephen Lansing, Priests and Programmers. Technologies of Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1991.
Esha Shah, Social Designs: Tank Irrigation Technology and Agrarian Transformation in Karnataka, South India. Thesis, Wageningen University (Netherlands), 12 June 2003. Published by Orient Longman, Hyderabad, India in the Wageningen University Water Resources Series. ISBN 81-250-2509-X
Esha Shah, Telling Otherwise: A Historical Anthropology of Tank Irrigation Technology in South India, Technology and Culture 49, July 2008, pp.652–674.
Andrew M. Bauer and Kathleen D. Morrison, Water Management and Reservoirs in India and Sri Lanka, in Heleine Selin, Ed., Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, 2nd ed., Dordrecht, Springer, 2008.
Kathleen D. Morrison, Dharmic Projects, Imperial Reservoirs, and New Temples of India An Historical Perspective on Dams in India, Conservation & Society, Vol.8, No.3 (2010), pp.182–195.
Georgina Drew, Mountain Women, Dams, and the Gendered Dimensions of Environmental Protest in the Garhwal Himalaya, Mountain Research and Development, Vol.34, No.3, Gender and Sustainable Development in Mountains — Transformative Innovations, Tenacious Resistances (Aug 2014), pp.235–242.
Kathleen D. Morrison, Archaeologies of flow: Water and the landscapes of Southern India past, present, and future, Journal of Field Archaeology, 40:5 (2015): 560–580.